Fitness Dictionary
by Justin French







the superficial (on top) head of the calf muscle which together with the soleus (the other head of the calf muscle) attaches to the heel through the achilles tendon and to the femur just above the knee joint.

German volume training, GVT
a training technique in which ten sets of ten reps are performed for each exercise. The same weight is used for each set and rest periods between sets are kept to a minimum.

also known as dextrose , a simple sugar which is the main form of carbohydrate transported through the bloodstream to be used for fuel by cells.

glutes, gluteus maximus
the large muscles of the buttocks that extend the hips
exercises targeting the glutes include stiff-leg deadlifts, deadlift, hyperextensions, good mornings and squats

glycemic index
Glycemic Index (GI) is a rating system for carbohydrates that deals with how quickly the sugar enters the blood stream and the extent of the insulin response following that entry. GIs were initially established to help diabetics regulate insulin levels following meals. Those carb sources that have low GIs generally enter the blood stream slower or cause a smaller insulin response. This can be beneficial for those trying to lose fat as well as those who are diabetic.

a type of starch synthesized from glucose for intracellular storage. The primary glycogen stores are in the liver and in the muscles; liver glycogen stores will be broken down to glucose and released into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels are low, whereas this does not happen with muscle glycogen stores which will be used only to provide fuel for the muscles themselves.
Note that way that glycogen is stored in the body requires four grams of water to be stored for each gram of glycogen. The combined weight and volume of muscle glycogen stores accounts for a significant part of total muscular size. The depletion of these glycogen stores (and the release of the accompanying water) is what accounts for the rapid weight loss experienced in the first few days of ketogenic and other reduced-carbohydrate diets.

good mornings
A lower back exercise that's performed by putting a barbell across your shoulders as if you were doing a squat, but instead of bending at the knees, keep your knees in a slightly bent position throughout the movement and bend only at the waist until your torso is close to horizontal, then raise your torso back to the vertical position.

the metric unit of mass
28.35 grams = 1 ounce
453 grams = 1 pound
28.349 grams = 1 ounce
1,000 mcg = 1 mg
1,000,000 mcg = 1 gram
1,000 grams 1 kilogram

holding onto the bar (or other object); many exercises can be performed with multiple grip styles and the type of grip used will affect the amount of weight that can be used, the safety of the movement, and the muscles targeted.

grip, false
a style of grip most commonly used in the bench press in which the thumb remains against the side of the palm rather than wrapping around the bar.

grip, neutral
if your palms are facing towards each other you are using a neutral grip

grip, pronated
look down at your hands; if your palms are facing away from you, you are using a pronated grip

grip, reverse
a reverse grip is one in which the wrists are rotated in opposite directions (one pronated, the other supinated ). This is most commonly used for deadlifts because the tendency of the bar to roll out of the hands is cancelled out, allowing the lifter to hold more weight.

grip, supinated
look down at your hands; if your palms are facing towards you, you are using a supinated grip
compare grip, pronated

an herb containing significant amounts of caffeine