The point in an exercise where you can't physically
continue the movement in good form.
that produce energy by breaking down glycogen in the absence
of oxygen. They produce rapid contractions, but create
lactic acid as a by-product. Some fast-twitch fibers are
convertible to non-lactate producing slow-twitch fibers.
Fats are organic compounds that are made up of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are the most concentrated
source of energy in foods. Fats belong to a group of substances
called lipids. Fats come in liquid or solid form. All
fats are combinations of saturated and unsaturated fatty
acids. Fats can be called very saturated or very unsaturated
depending on their proportions.
Fat is one
of the three nutrients (along with protein and carbohydrates)
that supply calories to the body. Fat provides 9 calories
per gram, more than twice the number provided by carbohydrates
Fat is essential
for the proper functioning of the body. Fats provide the
"essential" fatty acids, which are not made
by the body and must be obtained from food. Linoleic acid
is the most important essential fatty acid, especially
for the growth and development of infants. Fatty acids
provide the raw materials that help in the control of
blood pressure, blood clotting, inflammation, and other
as the storage substance for the body's extra calories.
It fills the fat cells (adipose tissue) that help insulate
the body. Fats are also an important energy source. When
the body has used up the calories from carbohydrate, which
occurs after the first 20 minutes of exercise, it begins
to depend on the calories from fat.
and hair are maintained by fat. Fat helps in the absorption,
and transport through the bloodstream of the fat-soluble
vitamins A, D, E, and K.
fats - These are the biggest dietary cause
of high LDL levels ("bad cholesterol"). When
looking at a food label, pay very close attention to
the % of saturated fat and avoid or limit any foods
that are high (for example, over 20% saturated fat).
Saturated fats are found in animal products such as
butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty
meats. They are also found in some vegetable oils --
coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils. (Note: most other
vegetable oils contain unsaturated fat and are healthy.)
fats - Hydrogenated: refers to oils that
have become hardened (such as hard butter and margarine).
Foods made with hydrogenated oils should be avoided
because they contain high levels of trans fatty acids,
which are linked to heart disease. (Look at the ingredients
in the food label.) The terms "hydrogenated"
and "saturated" are related; an oil becomes
saturated when hydrogen is added (i.e., becomes hydrogenated).
Partially hydrogenated: Refers to oils that have become
partially hardened. Foods made with partially hydrogenated
oils should be avoided because they contain high levels
of trans fatty acids, which are linked to heart disease.
(Look at the ingredients in the food label.)
fatty acids - Chemically altered (processed)
fats. Trans fatty acids significantly raise LDL cholesterol
levels, the bad cholesterol, while lowering the HDL
levels, the good cholesterol.
fats - Unsaturated fats: Fats that help to
lower blood cholesterol if used in place of saturated
fats. However, unsaturated fats have a lot of calories,
so you still need to limit them. There are two types:
mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated. Most (but not
all!) liquid vegetable oils are unsaturated. (The exceptions
include coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils.)
fats - Polyunsaturated fats: Fats that help
to lower blood cholesterol if used in place of saturated
fats. However, polyunsaturated fats have a lot of calories,
so you still need to limit them. Examples include safflower,
sunflower, corn, and soybean oils.
fats - Mono-unsaturated fats: Fats that help
to lower blood cholesterol if used in place of saturated
fats. However, mono-unsaturated fats have a lot of calories,
so you still need to limit them. Examples include olive
and canola oils.
The large bone of the thigh
an indigestible component of food, chemically classified
as carbohydrates (and may be included in the total carbohydrate
content listed on food labels), found primarily in unprocessed
vegetables, nuts, grains, and fruits. Fiber does not provide
calories, but offers significant health benefits as a
component of the diet.
The muscle is made up of individual muscle cells
called muscle fibers. A muscle cell is an elongated contractile
cell that forms the muscles of the body
the smaller bone of the lower leg
flax seed oil
an oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; because
of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, it should
be kept refrigerated and even then has a limited shelf
The range of movement about a joint
an exercise targetting the pectoral muscles usually performed
with dumbells or cables. See ... exercise
pec flyes, incline
pec flyes, ball
a forced rep is a repetition performed with assistance
from a spotter after a lifter has reached the point of
failure with a given weight.
compare cheat rep
equipment moved in the performance of an exercise which
is simply raised and lowered as a complete unit. So called
because the weight is free to move in any direction and
in any manner the lifter can manage.
Free weights include barbells and dumbbells
squats done with the bar placed across the front of the
shoulders rather than across the back. This concentrates
the exercise more on the quadriceps and less on the back
and glutes. Usually less weight can be lifted this way
than when performing a conventional squat.
also known as "fruit sugar" even though it is
found in many foods besides fruit and it is not the majority
of the sugar content in most fruits. Fructose also forms
half of the sucrose (ordinary table sugar) molecule. Approximately
50 grams of fructose per day can be metabolized by the
liver into glucose; amounts consumed beyond that will
be converted into triglycerides using an alternate pathway.