Fitness Dictionary
by Justin French

 

 

A-B-C-D-E-F-G-H-I-J-K-L-M-N-O-P-Q-R-S-T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z

 

 

C- D -E

 

Deadlift
An exercise for the hamstrings and back. See example

Definition
Visibility of the shape and detail of individual muscles as occurs in individuals with low bodyfat.

Deltoids
Delts. The shoulder muscles, which are divided into three heads: anterior, medial, and posterior

Deoxyribonucleicacid
DNA. The chemical, typically formed into chromosomes, that forms the chemical basis of genetics and heredity.

Dextrose
See glucose

DHT
see dihydrotestosterone

Diabetes
Type II diabetes is a condition in which the body has become desensitized to insulin. This causes blood sugar to rise and many associated complications. Type I diabetes is a much less common disease in which the body not produce sufficient amounts of insulin.

Dihydrotestosterone
A highly androgenic hormone produced from testosterone by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. This hormone is the primary culprit in male pattern baldness and benign prostate enlargement.

Dinitrophenol
2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP. A potent nonselective uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation that is not only effective when ingested, but can also be absorbed through the skin. It is used industrially as a wood preservative, in the production of explosives, and as an ingredient in insecticides. It is extremely flammable or explosive when dry.
Its use as a weight loss aid dates back to the 1920's, but side effects such as lethargy, malaise, death, and bad breath soon caused the medical establishment to discontinue its use. Reintroduced to the public as a weight loss technique by the late Dan Duchaine, the small therapeutic range (the difference between the effective dose and the lethal dose) and serious side effects have continued to discourage its use.

Diuretic
A drug that increases the rate at which water is excreted through the kidneys

DNA
see deoxyribonucleicacid

DNP
see dinitrophenol

Down Regulation
Decreasing the activity or responsiveness of a physiological process by reducing the number of available receptors.

Dumbbell
A short bar with fixed or changeable weights mounted on each end with enough space in between to grip with one hand. The term "dumbbell" comes from the practice of demonstrating strength by lifting heavy cast metal bells (like the Liberty Bell, only smaller and not cracked). A "dumb bell" was a bell made without a clapper so that it would not ring through one's show of physical prowess. Eventually, any weight meant to be hefted with one hand was referred to as a "dumbbell" and after what we now think of as being a dumbbell shape became standard, the word "bar bell" or "barbell" was coined to refer to a similar weight with a central bar long enough to be held easily with two hands.