Cable Machine. Cable Stack. An exercise machine
in which the lifter pulls on a handle attached to a cable.
The main difference between an exercise in which the resistance
is transmitted through a cable rather than being done
with free weights is that the force is in the direction
of the cable rather than always pointing downwards. For
example, when using a cable machine to perform curls ,
the cable may continue to provide resistance at the top
of the movement while the resistance the biceps must work
against when lifting free weights is minimal when the
forearm is at or near vertical.
Caffeine is a drug that stimulates the brain, the metabolism
and the bowels.
Calf Muscle. Tthe muscle on the back of the lower
leg responsible for extending the ankle and flexing the
knee. The calf muscle has two heads, which connect at
the bottom and attach to the heel: the gastrocnemius,
the top of which attaches above the knee joint, and the
soleus which attaches below.
An instrument used to measure skinfold thickness
and calculate approximate body fat percentage.
A unit of energy, equal to the amount of energy needed
to heat one gram of water one degree celsius. In common
usage, the "calories" most often refer to kilocalories
(also known as Kcal or "food calories") which
are really 1000 calories.
Similar to a pulley , a cam normally has a cable attached
to one point of the rim, an attached axle that transmits
rotational force to or from another part of the machine,
and a radius that varies with angle, changing the amount
of force applied at different parts of the movement in
a consistent manner.
A barbell with most of the middle offset; used to increase
the range of motion in bench pressing and also very effective
for avoiding scraped knees while deadlifting and for letting
the arms hang straight down during shrugs.
see cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
A carotenoid related to beta carotene used as a red food
coloring. When taken in (relatively) large quantities,
it imparts a reddish-orange tone to the skin leading to
its use as a tanning aid. It is non-toxic and has some
antioxidant activity, but prolonged use at high doses
has been known to cause crystals to form inside the eye.
The active chemical in hot peppers
Digestible food components such as starches and sugars
that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but
not nitrogen. Carbohydrates are the main constituent of
most vegetables and fruits, provide four calories per
gram, and are present only in small quantities in animal
After any period of carbohydrate depletion, particularly
as part of a cyclic ketogenic diet , the consumption of
large quantities of carbohydrates with the intent of saturating
muscle glycogen stores.
A result of typing large internet dictionaries.
Catabolism. The state in which a tissue breaks
CNS. The brain and spinal cord (in vertebrates)
Cheating. A cheat rep is a repetition performed
by deviating from strict form (leaning, adding extra momentum
at the bottom of the movement with whole-body motion).
A classic exercise where you pull your whole
body weight upwards with your arms until your chin just
clears the bar.
A sequence of exercises performed one after the other
with little rest in between. Think of it as being somewhere
in between traditional aerobics and traditional weight
see Krebs cycle
see conjugated linoleic acid
see central nervous system
Weight collars. Any kind of sleeve which may
be slipped over the end of a weight bar after the plates
have been put on and then tightened to hold the plates
securely on the bar. This prevents plates from slipping
off the end of the bar, shifting position, or rattling
during the exercise.
a thin, lemon-colored liquid produced by the mother's
breasts in the first day or so after giving birth. While
colostrum is beneficial for a newborn infant of the same
species as the one providing the colostrum, it is not
beneficial for adults. Adults do not have the same capacity
as a newborn animal to take up entire proteins in the
GI system without digesting them first. Do not waste your
money on colostrum unless you're less than 6 months old
and of bovine origin.
Compound exercise. An exercise that targets more than
one muscle or muscle group simultaneously; usually the
movement involves flexing or extending at least two joints.
Lat pulldowns, squats, and bench presses are compound
A type of bicep curl performed one-handed with a dumbbell
, the torso leaning far forward and the elbow either directly
below the shoulder or somewhat behind. Usually the upper
arm is supported by the inner thigh of the lifter, though
this is not required.
The muscle reduces in length as it contracts. Example:
During a bicep curl the bicep contracts concentrically
(the muscle shortens) as the weight is lifted.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid
CLA. A particular structural variant of linoleic
acid (a common unsaturated fatty acid). Several studies
exist supporting a potential health benefit of conjugated
linoleic acid (CLA). No studies suggest that it will aid
muscle growth or fat loss. It is food, certainly better
than some other fat sources, but treat it accordingly.
catabolic steroids such as prednisone or cortisol. These
are used to reduce inflammation by signalling tissues
to break down. While this certainly does have medical
uses, corticosteroids will not aid in building muscle--quite
the opposite, in fact.
Muscle cramp. A painful, involuntary muscular
contraction or pain in the muscle due to hypoxia or toxins.
Naturally occurring in muscle tissue, creatine functions
as a secondary reservoir for short-term energy to be drawn
upon when ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stores--the energy
storage molecule that drives muscular contraction--are
depleted. Supplemental creatine monohydrate added to the
diet will increase the concentration of creatine phosphate
within muscle tissue which may increase one's ability
to perform brief, high-intensity exercise.
An abdominal exercise performed by "curling"
the midsection to draw the base of the ribcage and the
hips as close together as possible; the hip joints themselves
should not move during the movement and are usually held
at a 90-degree angle by putting the lower legs on a chair
or bench with one's back on the floor.
To lose bodyfat, preferably with as little loss of muscle
and other lean tissue as possible.
Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
Important in the regulation of metabolic and neurologic
processes and activity, cAMP is generated in response
to the activation of cellular receptors and, in turn,
the presence of cAMP within the cell activates the process
in question. cAMP is broken down by cAMP-phosphodiesterase.
The activity and duration of the process is governed by
the rate at which cAMP is produced in response to receptor
activation and the rate at which it is broken down. This
is why the combination of ephedrine and caffeine produce
a greater metabolic response than the sum of their effects
when taken individually: ephedrine increseases receptor
activation, caffiene inhibits cAMP breakdown.
In reference to drugs or supplements, a "cycle"
is a dosage or usage regimen that lasts a finite period
of time with a planned sequence of doses and times, which
may or may not be the same.