Abduction is movement away from the central axis of
the body. Example: Bringing your arms up to the sides
is abduction at the shoulder.
An abductor is a muscle whose contraction results in
moving a limb away from the central axis of the body.
Example. The deltoids (shoulders) are abductors when
they contract and move your arms up and away from your
The muscles of the stomach. Their function is to draw
the base of the ribcage and the hips towards each other,
as occurs when performing crunches . Note that conventional
sit-ups are performed largely by the iliopsoas (hip
Slang for abdominals.
a common over the counter analgesic (pain reliever)
that is not a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug,
sold under the brand name Tylenol®, and many others.
It may be used when a pain killer is desired which will
not inhibit clotting or produce gastric upset, though
it will not provide any anti-inflammatory effects, nor
may it be substituted for aspirin in the ECA stack.
the tendon connecting the lower end of the calf muscle
to the back of the heel.
Adduction is movement of a limbtowards the central axis
of the body. Example: Bringing your arms towards your
sides or your legs together. Opposite of abduction.
An adductor is a muscle that acts on a joint to bring
a limb closer to the central axis. Example: The Lats
during a Chin-up.
The group of
inner thigh muscles is often refered to as the adductors.
This group consists of adductor brevis, adductor magnus,
adductor longus, pectineus and gracilis.
The basic unit of energy in the body. The molecular
"currency" that provides energy within cells
for everything from protein synthesis to muscle contraction.
Tissue comprised of fat storing cells. Body fat.
A receptor that responds to hormones (such as epinephrine
(adrenaline)) produced by the adrenal gland
With or requiring oxygen. When describing exercise,
it refers to a state in which the body is receiving
adequate oxygen to metabolise fat as energy.
The doer. The implementer. A muscle or chemical that performs
a certain purpose or action. Example: In a bicep curl
the agonist muscle is the bicep because it causes the
movement. The antagonist muscle is the tricep that contracts
to stabilize and slow down the movement.
Basic building blocks of protein.
branched chain amino
essential amino acids
A state in which growth or repair is occuring.
tending to reduce or eliminate pain
Producing or accentuating male sexual characteristics
(body hair, deepened voice, male pattern baldness).
Without or not requiring oxygen. Example: When the body
produces energy without the use of oxygen this is known
as anaerobic metabolism.
The opposition. Antagonist
muscles or chemicals oppose and balnce the action of
another muscle or chemical (the agonist).
Muscle may also be called a stabilizer or synergist.
Preventing or lessening catabolism
an enzyme responsible for (among other things) converting
testosterone into estrogens
Artificial, noncaloric sweetener. Generic name for Nutrasweet
Originally a brand name, aspirin is now a generic term
for acetylsalicylic acid (C 9 H 8 O 4 ), a common over
the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. Side effects
include inhibition of blood clotting (so that it may
increase internal bleeding and/or the extent of bruising
if used when an injury is fresh). Acetaminophen (Tylenol®)
may be used when a pain killer without these effects
is desired, though it will not provide any anti-inflammatory
effects, nor may it be substituted for aspirin in the
see, adenosine triphospate
Avulsion. Tearing away a body part
or structure such as tearing a tendon or ligament off
of a bone.